Autoimmune disease (AD) affects almost 7% of Americans and 5% of Australians and these rates continue to rise. There are a wide range of conditions that present differently that are all classified as an AD, however a malfunctioning and auto-destructive immune system is a shared characteristic. Research has shown that the gut microbiota interacts with the immune system through its metabolites and that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play an important role in this relationship. SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) regulate immune cells and support their development and function. SCFAs also have the ability to reduce inflammation. This study examines the way in which SCFAs can modulate the immune system and how this might be helpful in AD. The paper looks at celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes and other immune-mediated diseases. The paper reveals that SCFAs have the ability to relieve dysbiosis, are anti-inflammatory and that they can be a treatment and preventive option for auto-immune diseases.
Gut microbiota can interact with the immune system through its metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as one of the most abundant metabolites of the resident gut microbiota play an important role in this crosstalk. SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) regulate nearly every type of immune cell in the gut’s immune cell repertoire regarding their development and function. SCFAs work through several pathways to impose protection towards colonic health and against local or systemic inflammation. Additionally, SCFAs play a role in the regulation of immune or non-immune pathways that can slow the development of autoimmunity either systematically or in situ. The present study aims to summarize the current knowledge on the immunomodulatory roles of SCFAs and the association between the SCFAs and autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease (CD), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other immune-mediated diseases, uncovering a brand-new therapeutic possibility to prevent or treat autoimmunity.
Article Publication Date: 25/04/2023