Research Papers

Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, Particularly Vitamin A Containing Foods and Overall Dietary Fiber is Low Amongst Chronic Kidney Disease Patients


For individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), they are often recommended to restrict the consumption of fruit and vegetables since they are high in potassium, which can complicate CKD. However, fruit and vegetables are widely known to prevent many non-communicable diseases and should not be avoided. Given that the percentage of adults that meet their recommended daily intake of fruit and vegetables is extremely low, recommendations for CKD patients should consider the overall beneficial role of a diet high in plants and fiber. There is some evidence to suggest that fruit and vegetables are protective in CKD, however the aim of this study was to provide a robust study investigating the relationship between different stages of CKD and the intake of fruit, vegetables, β carotene (vitamin A containing foods) and dietary fiber. The results showed that as a patients CKD advanced, their intake of fruit and vegetables, including β carotene and dietary fiber significantly decreased. This concludes that patients with CKD have insufficient fruit and vegetable intake and a lack of β carotene and dietary fiber. Given that there is emerging evidence that avoiding fruit and vegetables with CKD may not be the most beneficial dietary pattern and consumption of these foods are typically low, further research is critical to elucidate whether recommendations should be updated to ensure best possible prognosis for CKD. β carotene and dietary fiber also have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties which should not be overlooked.

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Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) occasionally need to restrict their consumption of vegetables and fruits. However, recent evidence suggests that plant-based diets have beneficial effects in patients with CKD. We aimed to determine the sufficiency of β carotene and dietary fiber intake in patients with CKD. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 4476 patients registered in the Fukuoka Kidney Disease Registry (FKR) study, a Japanese prospective cohort study of patients with CKD. Data from 3545 patients were analyzed after excluding cases with insufficient information. We evaluated the relationship between CKD stages and the intake of vegetables and fruits. The intake of β carotene and dietary fiber in CKD stages was evaluated using analysis of covariance. As the CKD stage advanced, the intake of vegetables, green leafy vegetables, and fruits significantly decreased (P-value for all trends < 0.01). The intake of vegetables significantly decreased as the CKD stage advanced (P for trend < 0.01). After adjusting for confounding factors, the intake of β carotene and dietary fiber also decreased (both P < 0.01) as the CKD stage advanced. Patients with CKD had insufficient vegetable and fruit intake and a lack of β carotene and dietary fiber from vegetables and fruits.

Article Publication Date: 19/11/2022
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-24471-4

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